Thursday, March 19, 2020
Zenzele Review If you recall my previous comments on the novel Zenzele, by our contemporary J. Nozipo Maraire, you undoubtedly know that my appreciation of this book ends on the first page. I have previously stated that because of her elementary writing style and child-like narration (un-befitting of the adult narrator), I have hopelessly lost any interest that I could hold to this piece of literature. For this essay, I will attempt to stifle my true opinion of the book and address the social significance of the themes and ideals expressed to racism and prejudice in society today.Shiri, our narrator, lives a simple life in Zimbabwe. That is, if simple includes a massive revolution for independence and facing brutal racism every minute of every day. By mixing history, memory, and tradition, Shiri recounts her life experiences into a symphony of wisdom in which she advises her daughter, Zenzele, a student at Harvard, on how to live her life.'RACISM/THERE IS MORE TO LEARN' Dominic JacquesMost importan tly, Shiri teaches her daughter how to survive as an independent woman in the alien and oppressive culture that is the United States of America. Shiri coaxes her daughter not to forget the culture of her homeland. She insists that stories and traditions from the past can be applied to any point in history, and encourages Zenzele to find meaning in her anecdotes about love, conflict, prejudice, and tradition.While Maraire tells of family and marriage, much of the novel is centered around the revolution of Zimbabwe natives against their European colonial enemy. The import of such a xenotypic culture sparks much civil unrest that leads to brutal prejudice of the natives by the white folk. "Prejudice is in the eye of the beholder... Racism is a phenomenal thing; it is like a thick mist that obscures the vision...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
USS Pueblo Incident During the Cold War USS Pueblo Incident - Background: Constructed by the Kewaunee Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Wisconsin during World War II, FP-344 was commissioned April 7, 1945. Serving as a freight and supply vessel for the US Army, it was crewed by the US Coast Guard. In 1966, the vessel was transferred to the US Navy and re-named USS Pueblo in reference to the city in Colorado. Redesignated AKL-44, Pueblo initially served a light cargo vessel. Shortly thereafter, it was withdrawn from service and converted to a signals intelligence ship. Given the hull number AGER-2 (Auxiliary General Environmental Research), Pueblo was intended to operate as part of a joint US Navy-National Security Agency program. USS Pueblo Incident - Mission: Ordered to Japan, Pueblo arrived at Yokosuka under the command of Commander Lloyd M. Bucher. On January 5, 1968, Bucher shifted his vessel south to Sasebo. With the Vietnam War raging to the south, he received orders to pass through the Tsushima Strait and conduct a signals intelligence mission off the coast of North Korea. While in the Sea of Japan, Pueblo was also to assess Soviet naval activity. Putting to sea on January 11, Pueblo passed through the straits and endeavored to avoid detection. This included maintaining radio silence. Though North Korea claimed a fifty-mile limit for its territorial waters, this was not recognized internationally and Pueblo was directed to operate outside the standard twelve-mile limit. USS Pueblo - Initial Encounters: As an added element of safety, Bucher directed his subordinates to maintain Pueblo thirteen miles off the coast. On the evening of January 20, while stationed off Mayang-do, Pueblo was sighted by a North Korean SO-1-class sub chaser. Passing in the twilight at range of around 4,000 yards, the vessel showed no outward interest in the American ship. Departing the area, Bucher sailed south toward Wonsan. Arriving on the morning of January 22, Pueblo commenced operations. Around noon, two North Korean trawlers approached Pueblo. Identified as Rice Paddy 1 and Rice Paddy 2, they were similar in design to Soviet Lentra-class intelligence trawlers. While no signals were exchanged, Bucher understood that his vessel was being observed and ordered a message sent to Rear Admiral Frank Johnson, Commander Naval Forces Japan, stating that his vessel had been discovered. Due to transmission and atmospheric conditions, this was not sent until the next day. Throughout the trawlers visual inspection, Pueblo flew the international flag for hydrographic operations. Around 4:00 PM, the trawlers left the area. That night, Pueblos radar showed eighteen vessels operating in its vicinity. Despite a flare launched around 1:45 AM, none of the North Korean ships attempted to close on Pueblo. As a result, Bucher signaled Johnson that he no longer considered his ship under surveillance and would resume radio silence. As the morning of January 23 progressed, Bucher became annoyed that Pueblo had drifted approximately twenty-five miles off the coast during the night and directed that ship resume its station at thirteen miles. USS Pueblo Incident - Confrontation: Reaching the desired position, Pueblo resumed operations. Just before noon, a SO-1-class sub chaser was spotted closing at high speed. Bucher ordered the hydrographic flag hoisted and directed his oceanographers to commence work on deck. The ships position in international waters was also verified by radar. Nearing to 1,000 yards, the sub chaser demanded to know Pueblos nationality. Responding, Bucher directed the American flag to be hoisted. Clearly unfooled by the oceanographic work, the sub chaser circled Pueblo and signaled heave to or I will open fire. At this time, three P4 torpedo boats were spotted approaching the confrontation. As the situation developed, the ships were overflown by two North Korean MiG-21 Fishbed fighters. Confirming its position as being located nearly sixteen miles from the coast, Pueblo responded to the sub chasers challenge with I am in International Waters. The torpedo boats soon took up stations around Pueblo. Not wanting to escalate the situation, Bucher did not order general quarters and instead attempted to depart the area. He also signaled Japan to apprise his superiors of the situation. Seeing one of the P4s approaching with a contingent of armed men, Bucher accelerated and maneuvered to prevent them from boarding. Around this time, a fourth P4 arrived on the scene. Though Bucher desired to steer for open sea, the North Korean vessels attempted to force him south towards land. USS Pueblo Incident - Attack Capture: As the P4s circled close to the ship, the sub chaser began closing at high speed. Recognizing an incoming attack, Bucher steered to present as small a target as possible. As the sub chaser opened fire with its 57 mm gun, the P4s began spraying Pueblo with machine gun fire. Aiming for the ships superstructure, the North Koreans attempted to disable Pueblo rather than sink it. Ordering modified general quarters (no crew on deck), Bucher initiated the process for destroying the classified material aboard. The signals intelligence crew soon found that the incinerator and shredders were insufficient for material at hand. As a result, some material was thrown overboard, while equipment was destroyed with sledgehammers and axes. Having moved into the protection of the pilot house, Bucher was inaccurately informed that the destruction was proceeding well. In constant contact with the Naval Support Group in Japan, Pueblo informed it of the situation. Though the carrier USS Enterprise was operating approximately 500 miles to the south, its patrolling F-4 Phantom IIs were not equipped for air-to-ground operations. As a result, it would be over ninety minutes until aircraft could arrive. Though Pueblo was equipped with several .50 cal. machine guns, they were in exposed positions and the crew was largely untrained in their use. Closing, the sub chaser began pummeling Pueblo at close range. With little choice, Bucher halted his vessel. Seeing this, the sub chaser signaled Follow me, I have a pilot aboard. Complying, Pueblo turned and began following while destruction of the classified material continued. Going below and seeing the amount still to be destroyed, Bucher ordered all stop to buy some time. Seeing Pueblo drift to a stop, the sub chaser turned and opened fire. Hitting the ship twice, one round mortally wounded Fireman Duane Hodges. In response, Bucher resumed following at one-third speed. Nearing the twelve-mile limit, the North Koreans closed and boarded Pueblo. Quickly gathering the ships crew, they placed them on deck blindfolded. Taking control of the ship, they steered for Wonsan and arrived around 7:00 PM. The loss of Pueblo was first capture of US Navy vessel on the high seas since the War of 1812 and saw the North Koreans seize a large amount of classified material. Removed from Pueblo, the ships crew was transported by bus and train to Pyongyang. USS Pueblo Incident - Response: Moved between prisoner camps, the crew of Pueblo were starved and tortured by their captors. In an effort to force Bucher to confess to spying, the North Koreans subjected him to a mock firing squad. Only when threatened with the execution of his men did Bucher consent to write and sign a confession. Other Pueblo officers were compelled to make similar statements under the same threat. In Washington, leaders varied in their calls for action. While some argued for an immediate military response, others took a more moderate line and called for talks with the North Koreans. Further complicating the situation was the beginning of the Battle of Khe Sanh in Vietnam as well as the Tet Offensive at the end of the month. Concerned that military action would put the crew at risk, President Lyndon B. Johnson began a diplomatic campaign to free the men. In addition to taking the case to the United Nations, the Johnson Administration opened direct talks with North Korea in early February. Meeting in Panmunjom, the North Koreans presented Pueblos logs as proof it had repeatedly violated their territory. Clearly falsified, these showed one position as being thirty-two miles inland and another indicating that the ship had traveled at a speed of 2,500 knots. In an effort to secure the release of Bucher and his crew, the United States ultimately agreed to apologize for violating North Korean territory, admit that the ship was spying, and assure the North Koreans it would not spy in the future. On December 23, Pueblos crew was freed and crossed the Bridge of No Return into South Korea. Immediately following their safe return, the United States fully retracted its statement of apology, admission, and assurance. Though still in possession of the North Koreans, Pueblo remains a commissioned warship of the US Navy. Held at Wonsan until 1999, it was ultimately moved to Pyongyang. Selected Sources USS Pueblo (AGER-2)Naval Warfare: USS PuebloThe Pueblo Incident
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Law - Mock Final Exam - Assignment Example Mouza called the developer and complained and argued very loudly that the floor tiles in every room were the wrong color and there were no doors in the bedrooms. She got so stressed with everything as she walked through the villa that she slipped on a wet floor, fainted, and broke her wrist and her new iphone 4S as she fell to the floor. _____The civil Court has the jurisdiction to handle the case as it involves a commercial dispute between Mouza and RUCON which the company that handled the construction. There is also a breach of contract in the case as the contractor failed to carry out the work as required in the contrtact.____________________________________________________________________ ___The appeal will be heard in the Court of Appeal within a period of 30 days from the day of judgment. This is because the Court of Appeal has the powers to handle and appeal emanating from the Civil Court. _____RUCON will be referred to as the appellant as the company will have filed the appeal. Mouza will be referred to as the appellee in the case. _____________________________________________________________________ _____In Abu Dhabi, the Federal Supreme Court of Appeal is responsible for making the final judgment regarding the cases that emanates from the other courts. _____________________________________________________________________ _____If RUCON LLC was based in Dubai, the final decision would have been made by the Court of Cassation. The Court of Cassation is the highest Court in Dubai. _____________________________________________________________________ __The first legal action in the case involves the breach of contract by the company. According to Article 131, RUCON had accepted the contract by entering into an agreement with Mouza to construct the house. On the other hand, it is also important to note that the RUCON promised to complete the work within the completion date as and as required by
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Relationships between soldiers in The Thin Red Line (1998, Malick) - Essay Example This war movie consists of both cruelties and kindness. The first level of kindness that this takes place is with regards to the brotherly relations that are evident between the men of the company and platoon. On a second level, the relationships within the movie are related to the viewer with regards to the means by which father-son elements unfold also represent bright side of humanity. On the other side of spectrum we face tensions between people that result into conflicts in the movie. When seeking to understand these relationships within the context of the film, the following analysis will attempt to draw a level of focus upon the brother-brother, father-son, and exemplification of tensions between the men as they are exhibited by the actions that take place. As such, this particular analysis will seek to understand whether or not a familial level of relationships exist within the film, the type and definition of these familial relationships and some of the causal factors that h elp to encourage and develop these features. Firstly, with regards to the brother-brother relationships that are exhibited within the film, the viewer can see direct evidence of this to the type of behavior that is exhibited during their leave. Even though it may be assumed that the brotherly relations would most be exemplified during the combat scenes of the film, this is not necessarily the case. Rather, the dynamics of brotherly relations between the battle-weary men is most exhibited with regards to how the men spend their free time once they are on leave or before and after the combat. After weeks of stress and integrating with the deaths of their comrades within gruesome battles, the men settle into an uneasy, still stressful, rest that is only punctuated and made uniform by the level to which these men appreciate their own camaraderie and seek to make a communal sense of their current lives. The Narrator says the following about WittÃ¢â¬â¢s realization of friendship: Ã¢â¬Å "he feels the mysterious quality of deep, manly friendship which can exist between men who share the pain and death, the fear and sadness of combatÃ¢â¬âthe happiness, tooÃ¢â¬ (02:40). This of course helps to underscore the understanding of how the men involved within the film are defined by the conflict they are in. If such hardships did not exist within Guadalcanal, it is unlikely that the brotherly relationship exhibited during leave would have ever developed at all. Hardships bring people together, since they are fighting together for one cause against one evil enemy. Likewise, the father-son relationship that exists within the film is most adequately exposed by how Captain Staros interacts with the company commander. Captain Staros, a father figure for the men under his command, takes his role as guardian and protector of his menÃ¢â¬â¢s lives very seriously. Therefore, he takes full responsibility for all of the members of his platoon. Although his responsibility as an o fficer also includes implementing the orders of the officers above him, this primary motive to provide for the safety and wellbeing of the men under his command serves as something of a guiding precept by which Staros defines his role as captain. Staros right before the leave home has a warm and memorable talk with some members of his platoon. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"
Saturday, January 25, 2020
My Lai On March 16, 1968, "Charlie Company" was sent into a small Viet Cong village called (by the U.S.) My Lai 4. Their instructions by commanding officers were: "... kill every man, woman, child and animal in the village. Burn all the homes .... nothing should be walking, growing or crawling." Orders were followed, and as I read the first 65 pages of this book, I was exposed to the detailed death of 306 civilians, mostly women, small children, and old people. There was no threat to any American GIs ... there were no Viet Cong Solders in the area. I read of the rape of a 14 year old girl by twenty GIs ... in front of the parents. They were all shot after the GIs were "done with their business." This was only one of many. Most of the murders were conducted, BY ORDER OF OFFICERS, to round-up the families from their homes, forced into ditches, and shot. Women dove to cover their children. Later, children just old enough to walk crawled out from under their mutilated mothers' bodies, only to be shot as target practice by the GIs. It is later estimated that approximately 500 civilians were murdered, and (probably) no VC were in the area. I could go into detail about the killing. However, most of the book was devoted to the time before the massacre, and afterward. The officers and GIs of "Charlie Company" were introduced in the beginning of the book: the officers had been social outcasts all their life (LT. Calley & Medina). Both had decided to devote their life to the military. The GIs were selected for "Charlie Company" specifically because they had all scored too low on the initial exam to be put into a regular battalions. After the massacre, nothing was done. As a matter of fact, "Charlie Company" was praised for having the "most kills" in one day. By late 1969, most of the GIs in Charlie Company were civilians again, and a few began to tell what they had seen (and participated in). A Government Investigation was called against Lt. Calley (who ordered, and participated in the murders). Some of the photographs from the massacre were published. You wouldn't believe what the civilian response was! The overwhelming public response was to drop the charges; they thought that there was nothing wrong with the massacre, OR they didn't believe it really happened. As a matter of fact, Lt. Calley had become a hero as an AMERICAN! There was a hugely-supported
Friday, January 17, 2020
Eating is most important activity in our life. Some people eat 2 times, 4 times, or some people in poor countries eat only 1 time a day. We live in a world where the variety of food is immense, and we are responsible for what we eat. We decide what we are about to eat and how it will affect our bodies. The three main differences between fresh food and canned food are flavor, health benefits, and cost. The most notable difference between these two kinds of foods is their flavor.Fresh food have great flavor and taste because they keep all their natural conditions. Canned food however, lack a lot of its flavor characteristics because there are some other chemical products added to the natural foods. Fresh food will have a greater taste and flavor when consumed just because of the time in which they have been prepared. Comparing both types of foods there is another difference. There is a health factor that affects both of them.Canned foods lose some of the original fresh food nutrients a nd vitamins when stored, and also it has to be tinned with many conservatives and chemical factors that prolong the shelf life and apparent freshness of the food but could also become toxic if consumed too often. Yet another difference between these two types of foods is the cost. Canned food are much more expensive than fresh foods. The benefit of buying tinned foods is that they are easier to find, for example, in a supermarket instead of the market like the fresh foods.When you look at the picture of the canned food it is so beautiful and it makes you buy it, but when you open it later you will see that they do not match and the taste is not good. Canned food requires less work than fresh food, even sometimes no work at all. If you decide to make food instead buying it ready you would have to spend at least 2 or 3 hours, but you will get delicious food that everyone will enjoy it. Fresh foods are always good for your health, but if you do not have enough time it is fine to get ca nned food. Eating canned food is not recommended, because it can make you sick and you might get diseases from that.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
To uncover the origins of the Second World War is a difficult task and to summarize it, even more so, but this is exactly what historian P.M.H. Bell does in his astounding book The Origins of the Second World War in Europe. Although Bell does a great job of providing accounts on both sides of the debate on the origins of the Second World War, he does have his own mindset about it. In his eyes, Bell sees the Second World War as being a thirty year war, driven by the ideology and economics of Germany, which was not preplanned by blueprint. He outlines this very clearly in the conclusion of his book, basing it on knowledge that he interlaid throughout. Bell begins this read by illustrating the theory of the thirty years war. This,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦While Hitler wasn t interested in conquering the mighty USSR from the start, he did for see an eventual war with her for her abundant resources16. Thus, the clash that the two countries had in 1941 was long coming, but not a surprise. Living space then, was a necessary objective in Hitler s eyes, but in order to achieve this space he needed to develop Germany s army first. So he did. Between 1933 and 1939 the Treaty of Versailles was secretly avoided to massively increase the size of the German army, from 100,000 to 300,00017. The Luftwaffe, German air force, also rapidly increased and by 1940 it was the strongest among all the European powers. The German war machine was impressive, in just six years it went from being the weakest army to one of the strongest18. However, this created a vicious circle in terms of foreign policy for Germany: Hitler wanted living space, so he built up the army. However, in order to pay for this rapid rearmament, he had to conquer territories. Thus, Hitler made war profitable and a key part of the foreign policy of Germany19. To sum up, Hitler s Germany lived on a balanced diet of economics and ideology. On the one hand, Hitler s ideology called for living space for his great Aryan race. However, on the other hand, economics were the backbone of building an army large enough to acquire it. This resulted in Hitler conquering many new lands for his cause. First there wasShow MoreRelatedThe Cold War as the Result of Fear of Soviet Expansion Essay example1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Cold War as the Result of Fear of Soviet Expansion At the end of the Second World War only two out of the all the great powers were left standing. Germany and Japan had been crushed in the war and Britain and France were weakened economically and politically. 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